Livestock industry development
This article is talking about livestock industry development writen by professional livestock farming equipment manufacturer, Qingdao Desing Farming Technology Co.,Ltd. dedicated to all types of livestock equipment supply to raise livestock management at most.
Animal husbandry is the use of livestock and poultry and other animals that have been domesticated by humans, or the physiological functions of wild animals such as deer, musk deer, fox, mink, otter, quail, etc., through artificial breeding and reproduction, so that plants such as forage and fodder can be transformed It is the production department of animal energy to obtain animal products such as meat, eggs, milk, wool, cashmere, hides, silk and medicinal materials. Different from self-sufficient livestock breeding, the main characteristics of animal husbandry are centralized, large-scale, and profit-making.
Animal husbandry refers to the production sector that uses grazing, captive breeding or a combination of the two to raise livestock and poultry to obtain animal products or draught animals. It includes livestock breeding, poultry breeding, economic beast domestication, etc. The main characteristics and requirements of animal husbandry are:
Animal husbandry in the national economy is mainly:
①Provide animal foods such as meat, milk, and eggs.
②Provide raw materials such as wool, cashmere, leather, bristles, animal bones and casings for the industry.
③ Obtain foreign exchange through the export of livestock products.
④ Promote the development of the animal husbandry input industry and animal product processing industry, and increase employment opportunities.
⑤Agriculture and transportation provide animal power.
In the early stages of economic development, animal husbandry is often represented as a sideline of crop production, the so-called 'backyard animal husbandry'. With the development of the economy, it gradually developed into a relatively independent industry in certain sectors. For example: layer industry, broiler industry, dairy industry, beef cattle industry, pig industry, etc. China’s animal husbandry has experienced 40 years of development, especially after the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. By 1990, the proportion of animal husbandry output in the total agricultural output value had reached 26.6% based on the price of the year. With the emergence of a relatively independent animal husbandry industry, a strong industrial sector has begun to differentiate. This is the various animal husbandry input industries that serve animal husbandry and production, including: the production of machinery, equipment, veterinary drugs, compound feed, etc. , And the processing industry of various animal husbandry products, such as meat processing industry and dairy processing industry. Therefore, animal husbandry in a broad sense often includes agro-industrial joint enterprises that serve it, such as various breeding livestock and poultry companies, joint animal husbandry, industrial and commercial companies, and compound feed companies. In many developed countries in the world, regardless of the size and population density of the country, the animal husbandry industry is very developed. With the exception of Japan, the output value of animal husbandry accounts for more than 50% of the total agricultural output value, such as 60% in the United States, 70% in the United Kingdom, and some in Northern Europe. Country 80%-90%. Since the 1980s in China, the growth rate of animal husbandry production has far exceeded the world average, and the per capita output or output value of animal husbandry is still lower than the world average. The main ways to develop animal husbandry include: adjusting the structure of animal husbandry in accordance with local conditions, opening up feed sources, improving livestock species, strengthening breeding management, preventing diseases, and increasing the productivity of livestock; at the same time, increasing the number of livestock.
The main characteristics and requirements of animal husbandry are:
(1) Its expanded reproduction is closely related to the proportion of males, females, young animals, and young animals in various types of livestock. Therefore, maintaining a reasonable herd structure is very important for accelerating the development of animal husbandry.
(2) Feed is the foundation of animal husbandry. Only by continuously solving the problem of feed can the development of animal husbandry be accelerated.
(3) The commodity of animal husbandry is very high, and the products are not easy to transport and easy to decay. Therefore, it is required to cooperate closely in the acquisition, processing, storage, transportation and other aspects.
(4) Animal husbandry has greater adaptability to natural and economic conditions, that is, it can be used for grazing and shed feeding.
Due to the existence of these characteristics and requirements, the development of animal husbandry must be based on the natural economic conditions of the localities and local conditions to give full play to advantages.
Animal husbandry mainly includes cattle, horses, donkeys, mules, camels, pigs, sheep, chickens, ducks, geese, rabbits, bees and other domestic animals and poultry, and deer, mink, otters, musk and other wild economic animals domestication. It not only provides raw materials for textile, oil, food, pharmaceutical and other industries, but also provides rich food such as meat, milk, eggs, and poultry for people's lives, and provides draught animals and manure for agriculture. Therefore, doing a good job in animal husbandry production is of great significance for promoting economic development, improving people's lives, and increasing export materials. The conditions for the development of animal husbandry are: suitable natural conditions, that is, light, heat, water, and soil are suitable for the growth and development of various pastures and livestock. The pasture area is large, the quality is good, and there are many types; it has a certain material basis and production potential. It is very large, can achieve low investment, quick results, and high returns; the majority of farmers have experience and skills in animal husbandry production. There are many types of animal husbandry, which can be divided into pastoral area animal husbandry, agricultural area animal husbandry, and suburban animal husbandry according to feed types, animal species composition, and management methods.
Ranch grazing is a type of market-oriented agricultural area, mainly distributed in the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Argentina, South Africa and other countries and regions. These areas have large areas of arid and semi-arid climates. These areas have sparse vegetation, unsuitable for planting operations, and vast pastures suitable for grazing livestock, thus forming this type of agricultural area. 
In the United States and Argentina, cattle grazing occupies an important position.
In the large pastures of Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, sheep raising occupies an important position.
The ranch cattle industry on the Pampas grassland in Argentina has become an outstanding representative of the world's ranch management due to its good economic benefits.
The climate is mild and the grasses are luxuriant, making it one of the finest natural pastures in the world; the vast land is sparsely populated, and the land rent is very low, which provides the possibility for large-scale ranch operations; the location advantage close to the seaport promotes the development of pastures Commodity management. Before the Europeans arrived, Indians grazing freely here. After the Europeans arrived, the Pampas grasslands were gradually divided by large grazing pastures surrounded by barbed wire, and extensive self-sufficient grazing was replaced by intensive commercial cattle breeding. The ranch is owned by the rancher, who used to be free and employed by the rancher to graze the herd.
Argentina is vast and sparsely populated. The beef produced is mainly for export. The connection of railways facilitates the transportation of beef cattle to port cities for slaughtering and processing; the invention of the sea freezer ship expanded the market of Pampas beef to Europe. In order to ensure the development of the cattle industry in Pampas, the Argentines took measures such as fenced grazing, demarcation rotation, planting feed, and drilling wells to ensure drinking water for humans and animals and forage growth; Cultivation, and research on cattle diseases. Pampas animal husbandry has a high degree of commercialization, specialization and regionalization, and has become a typical pasture grazing industry.
Large-scale pasture grazing has the characteristics of large production scale, high commodity rate and high degree of specialization.
The climate is mild, the grass is lush, the land is sparsely populated, the land rent is low, the terrain is flat, it is close to the seaport, and the level of technology is high.
The land is cheap, the land is sparsely populated, the grasses are abundant, the growth is lush, the mild subtropical climate is close to the seaport and the export is convenient.
The commodity rate is high, the scale is large, the breeding of excellent breeding cattle, the advanced freezing and fresh-keeping technology, the improvement of transportation conditions, and the development of water sources to grow feed.
1. Breeding good breed cattle
The earliest thoroughbred cattle in Pampas were brought by Europeans. Later, the Argentines strengthened the breeding of fine breed cattle and the research of cattle diseases, and they have been at the leading level in the world in this field.
2. Improve transportation conditions
The large railway crossing the Pampas was completed. In this way, beef cattle from the ranch can be easily transported to the capital, Buenos Aires, for slaughtering and processing, and then shipped abroad.
3. Open up water sources
Many motorized wells have been drilled on the grassland to ensure the normal growth of pasture and provide drinking water for cattle and people.
4. Growing feed
Plant some forage crops or pastures to supplement the shortage of natural pastures during grazing.
The dairy industry is a regional type of commercialized and intensive animal husbandry for the urban market formed with the development of cities. Its main production targets are dairy cows, and the products are milk and its products, such as milk powder, butter and cheese. The areas where the dairy industry is relatively developed are mainly the areas around the Great Lakes in North America, Western Europe, Central Europe, Australia and New Zealand. 
In some parts of Western and Central Europe, the climate is cool, humid, rainy and foggy, and less sunshine, which is conducive to the growth of succulent pastures. In addition to juicy pastures, dairy cows also need concentrated feed with high protein content. The dairy farming regions of Western Europe grow both high-quality forage and concentrate crops. In terms of location selection, Western Europe has a high degree of urbanization and people have the habit of drinking milk. Therefore, the dairy animal industry that produces milk is located in the periphery of large cities, while the dairy animal industry that produces dairy products is far from the cities. The dairy industry in Western Europe is highly mechanized and has specialized automated milking equipment, alleviating the labor shortage.
Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, China’s animal husbandry has developed rapidly. The output value of animal husbandry has continued to increase. From 3.37 billion yuan in 1949 to 20.93 billion yuan in 1978; in 1990, the output value of animal husbandry further increased to 196.7 billion yuan, which was 1949. The output value of animal husbandry has exceeded 2 trillion yuan in 2010, accounting for more than 30.04% of the country’s total agricultural output value. It can be seen that as the output value of China’s animal husbandry industry continues to increase, its The status of agriculture has also improved. In 2010, animal husbandry has become a pillar industry of China's agriculture and rural economy, with outstanding characteristics of large-scale production, industrialized operation, and distinctive regional layout and marketization. By 2015, the proportion of large-scale livestock and poultry farming nationwide will increase by 10-15%, and the output value of animal husbandry will account for 36% of the total output value of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery. At the same time, it also proposed for the first time financial support for the animal husbandry industry, and encouraged qualified places to set up animal husbandry loan guarantee funds and guarantee companies to provide financing services for leading enterprises in breeding and processing. The introduction of financial policies is expected to enable large-scale aquaculture companies to break through funding and scale bottlenecks. The prospects for the development of animal husbandry are broad.
Since the reform and opening up, the basic conditions of China's animal husbandry production have been continuously improved, production methods have been rapidly transformed, and the comprehensive production capacity of the animal husbandry industry and the ability to ensure effective market supply have been continuously strengthened. In 2010, China's meat and poultry and egg production ranked first in the world, and its milk production ranked third in the world. With the increase in production, the per capita share of livestock products in China has also continued to rise. In 1978, the national per capita share of meat, eggs, and milk were only 9.1 kg, 2.4 kg and 1.0 kg respectively. By 2010, the per capita share had reached 45.8. The kilograms, 20.7 kilograms and 26.7 kilograms were respectively 5.0 times, 8.6 times and 26.7 times the 1978 levels.
In 2010, urban residents in my country are still in the 'rising' stage of steadily increasing consumption of animal food, especially beef and mutton, poultry, liquid milk and dairy products, and aquatic products, which will see a rapid increase. With the increase in the income of rural residents, there will be a stage of rapid growth in the consumption of meat and eggs. The emergence of the actual demand for rural milk consumption may be a few years later, but its potential will be greater. In general, in the next 15-20 years, the consumption of livestock products of Chinese residents will enter a period of steady growth. The development of my country's animal husbandry still has great development potential.
During the 'Twelfth Five-Year Plan' period, the comprehensive production capacity of animal husbandry will be significantly enhanced, and the scale, standardization, and industrialization will be further improved. It is estimated that by 2015, the output of meat, eggs, and milk will reach 85 million tons, 29 million tons and 50 million tons respectively, the output of wool will reach 430,000 tons, and the output value of animal husbandry will account for 36% of the total output value of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery. The good development prospects of animal husbandry will continue to drive the steady development of the veterinary drug industry.
Based on the zoning principles and indicators of animal husbandry zoning, and taking full account of the regional differences in feed resources, natural environment, feeding technology, social needs and production characteristics, China’s animal husbandry is divided into seven animal husbandry regional types, namely Huang Huaihai District, Donghai District, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Mongolian-Xinjiang Plateau, Loess Plateau, Southwest Mountain, and Northeast District; and summarize the animal husbandry resources, animal husbandry development conditions and main issues, and propose the development direction and main issues of animal husbandry in each district Measures.
The animal husbandry in the agricultural area is mainly called the animal husbandry in the agricultural area. The characteristics of animal husbandry in agricultural areas are:
①The animal husbandry is based on food-consuming by-products. Livestock types are mainly pigs, poultry, draught animals, and goats that consume more food. The feed sources are agricultural by-products such as cotton seed cake, soybean meal, chaff, wheat bran, sweet potato, aged feed, straw and weeds, wild vegetables, etc. And use hillsides and scattered grasslands for grazing.
②The dual-purpose animal husbandry is relatively developed, such as cattle raising, horse raising, and donkey raising that are used for both milk and meat labor.
③ Mainly feed in houses. Except for short-term stubble grazing after the crops are harvested, the rest of the time is artificially raised in livestock houses.
④ Feed expenses account for a relatively high proportion, generally accounting for more than 65% of animal husbandry expenses. It can fully realize the combination of agriculture and animal husbandry, with more detailed management and high production level. The mode of operation is mainly farm sideline, as well as state-owned pastures and specialized livestock farmers. Animal husbandry in agricultural areas is still the main part of China's animal husbandry.
In the grassland and desert areas, animal husbandry, which is mainly grazing, is called pastoral animal husbandry. Livestock are mainly herbivores. Extensive operation and management, lack of close integration of agriculture and animal husbandry, seasonal fluctuations in forage supply, susceptibility to severe weather threats, low and uneven livestock productivity. China’s pastoral areas are located in the northern and western borders, including Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Tibet, Qinghai, Sichuan, Gansu, Ningxia, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Hebei, Shanxi and other provinces and autonomous regions. There are 266 pastoral, semi-agricultural and semi-pastoral counties (banners). ), the area accounts for more than 50% of the total land area of ??the country, and the number of livestock accounts for 22% of the total number of livestock in the country. The basic principles of development are: rational use and protection of existing natural pastures; focus on grassland construction and other constructions, such as developing water sources, storing grass preparations, and improving livestock production conditions; adjusting herd structure and developing seasonal production, such as lambs The slaughter of the year, early fattening and slaughter of beef cattle, promote the growth of summer and autumn, avoid winter and lean and lack of spring; the development of the combination of agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry; and the adoption of applicable technologies to accelerate technological transformation.
Grassland animal husbandry is the use of grassland to graze livestock directly, or the grassland is used as forage mowing ground to raise livestock. The grassland in China can be divided into three types: natural grassland, artificial grassland, and semi-artificial grassland based on the nature of plant communities; from the distribution of grassland, it can be divided into two types: northern grassland and southern grassy hills and slopes. The problems of China's grassland animal husbandry are: grassland resources are degraded and the productivity of animal husbandry is low. In addition to the lack of advanced management methods, it is also related to the poor natural conditions in these areas. The main ways to develop grassland animal husbandry are:
① Improve grassland.
② Expand artificial grass planting where conditions permit.
③Construction of livestock sheds.
④ Strengthen the construction of service system.
⑤ Reform the unreasonable circulation system.
It is distributed in a long and narrow strip along the north and south of the Great Wall, and is one of the main supply bases for draught and carnivorous livestock in agricultural areas. In the history of this area, it was an area with great changes in the alternate development of agriculture and animal husbandry. It was characterized by the production methods of pure agriculture operated by the Han people and pure animal husbandry by the Mongolian people. Dry farming and grazing animal husbandry are staggered in the area, and animal husbandry has the characteristics of both grazing in pure pastoral areas and house-raising in farming areas. Natural pastures in the Horqin Grassland and Bashang Plateau in the region are mainly grazing cattle, horses and sheep, and are important production bases for meat, milk and fine wool. In addition, Ningxia's Yanchi, Shandong Hui Agricultural and Animal Husbandry, Tongxin and the adjacent areas of Inner Mongolia have always been mainly engaged in the development of Tan sheep, and the two furs produced are particularly famous.
Mainly distributed around cities and large industrial and mining areas, it mainly raises pigs, chickens, dairy cows and other livestock and poultry, and directly provides meat, eggs, milk and other livestock products for cities and industrial and mining areas. In addition to raising livestock and poultry in rural collective and individual houses in the suburbs, there are also dairy farms, large-scale mechanized pig raising, and chicken raising farms, forming non-staple food bases in cities and industrial and mining areas with high technical level and commodity rates.
In China, high-level animal husbandry talents are mainly trained by China Agricultural University and agricultural (husbandry) colleges and universities distributed in various provinces (cities, autonomous regions); secondary animal husbandry talents are mainly trained by animal husbandry (agricultural) secondary vocational schools To train, such as Jilin Province Animal Husbandry School.
The main components of livestock and poultry excrement are nitrogenous compounds, calcium, phosphorus, soluble nitrogen-free substances, crude fiber, other trace elements, and certain drugs. The content of various components varies with livestock and poultry species, feed, and feeding methods. However, the excrement of excrement will pollute the air, water and soil. Wastes include eggshells, internal organs, hair, blood, and leftovers. These wastes can become useful substances after being recycled and processed in time. If they are not disposed of in time and discarded with feces, they will also become pollutants along with excrement. 
According to statistics, there are more than 90 kinds of zoonotic diseases transmitted from animals to humans. The main carriers of these zoonotic diseases are feces and excrement. In pigs, the most typical is the parasitic disease transmitted to humans. In June 2005, a porcine streptococcal disease was transmitted to humans in Sichuan Province, causing dozens of deaths. In terms of poultry, the most serious cases are the cases of bird flu virus infecting humans, such as the case of two deaths caused by bird flu in Hong Kong in 1997 and the case of bird flu in Dingdang Town, Guangxi in 2004. There is foot-and-mouth disease in cattle. Foot-and-mouth disease occurred in a large number of cloven-hoofed beasts in the United Kingdom in March 2001. Two cases of staff infection occurred in handling sick animals. Anthrax, brucellosis, and tuberculosis were also common. Among zoonotic diseases, severe diseases pose a great threat to humans. 
Random discharge of livestock manure and sewage from livestock product processing plants can easily cause eutrophication of water bodies. These wastes are directly discharged into natural water bodies without treatment, such as reservoirs, lakes, rice fields and other waters. Aquatic organisms in the water, such as algae, multiply immediately after obtaining rich nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, and consume oxygen in the water, threatening the survival or even death of fish in the pond. It is common in the media that industrial sewage causes fish deaths, and fish deaths often occur in fish ponds next to livestock and poultry farms; in paddy fields, the crops are lengthened, fallen, and the rice is late or immature, making the rice harvest impossible. Due to the proliferation of aquatic organisms, the organic matter in the water decomposes anaerobicly at the bottom of the water to produce odorous substances such as mercaptans, which make the water body black and smelly. It is difficult to purify and restore the vitality of the 'eutrophication' water body. This is also the production of animal husbandry. A major target of pollution. 
Due to the development of large-scale and intensive animal husbandry, the large-scale use of antibiotics and sulfa drugs has become the main means of prevention and control of livestock and poultry diseases. Due to economic benefits and insufficient scientific knowledge, drug abuse is widespread, resulting in livestock and poultry products. (Including meat, eggs and milk) drug residues. These products are transferred to the human body through people's food intake and affect physical health. For example, chloramphenicol, which mainly damages the human hematopoietic system, causes obstructive anemia and even leukemia; DDT in organochlorine drugs is highly toxic and stable, and can enrich DDT containing trace amounts to serious carcinogenic hazards through biology. 
Heavy metal pollution
Heavy metal pollution is mercury, lead, arsenic, cadmium, etc. Heavy metals cannot be degraded into harmless substances. After they enter water and soil, they are absorbed by passive plants and have a step-by-step enrichment effect, which can cause poisoning and death of humans and animals. Or suffer from cancer. 
Pollution of feed additives and growth promoters to livestock products
As human beings one-sided pursuit of economic benefits, the pollution caused by additives and growth promoters often occurs. For example, the meat, egg, and milk contamination of dioxin in Belgium in June 1999 caused huge economic losses to Belgium and Europe; the first case of mad cow disease was discovered in the United Kingdom in 1985, and since 1996, France, Denmark, Germany and other EU countries have successively The occurrence of mad cow disease has caused a serious blow to the beef cattle industry in Europe. The main cause is that animal bone blood meal is used as a feed additive. Growth-promoting agents such as the common 'Clenbuterol' (chemical name Clenbuterol) can increase pig production rate and carcass lean meat rate by 10% when added to feed. Although it can improve economic benefits, its residues The harm caused by people who eat it is immeasurable.
Formulate pollution prevention laws and regulations and strengthen environmental supervision
According to the specific development situation and level of my country’s animal husbandry, find a set of feasible animal husbandry environmental quality standards and livestock and poultry excrement and waste discharge standards for the existing large-scale livestock and poultry farms and new, rebuilt, and expanded livestock and poultry farms. Planning and management, providing theoretical and legal basis, and bringing environmental governance of livestock farms into the track of legal management. Establish and improve a professional animal husbandry environmental quality supervision agency, make corresponding regulations on the pollution caused by all aspects of the livestock and poultry farms, and find out the degree of pollution caused by the livestock and poultry farms and the surrounding air, soil, water, rivers, lakes, etc. Hazards, targeted measures should be taken to control and achieve the goal of environmental governance of animal husbandry. 
Relevant government departments should intensify the control of pollution from livestock industry
Government departments should mobilize the livestock industry’s enthusiasm for environmental pollution control through policy incentives, encourage animal husbandry companies to continue to obtain economic benefits in their operations, and rationally arrange investment in environmental protection and governance, as well as investment in the production of safe animal products, To achieve the effect of sustainable development of animal husbandry. 
Increasing the utilization rate of livestock and poultry feed, especially increasing the utilization rate of nitrogen in feed, and reducing the pollution of nitrogen in livestock and poultry manure, is a 'cure the root cause' to eliminate pollution in livestock production. In order to achieve this goal, in addition to cultivating good varieties In addition to scientific breeding, scientific ingredients, and the application of additives that are safe for the human body and can promote the growth of livestock and poultry, the principles of ecological nutrition are also used to develop environmentally friendly feeds. 
Ecological Engineering Technology
Through the construction of animal husbandry ecological engineering, vigorously develop ecological animal husbandry and carry out waste-free and pollution-free animal husbandry production. Ecological engineering is the use of modern ecology, ecological economics principles and laws, the use of system engineering to guide animal husbandry production, and will achieve high-quality, efficient and sustainable development of animal husbandry through a virtuous cycle of economy and ecology. 
Veterinary epidemic prevention system
Livestock disease is the key to severely endanger the sustainable development of animal husbandry. According to the 1993 survey of livestock and poultry deaths conducted by the Ministry of Agriculture, about 12% of pigs, 20% of poultry, and 5% of cattle. The economic loss amounts to about 30 billion yuan, which is a shocking amount. Therefore, only the establishment and improvement of the national top-down veterinary epidemic prevention system can achieve the national prevention and control, reduce the mortality of livestock and poultry, and ensure the healthy growth of livestock and poultry, thereby ensuring the sustainable development of animal husbandry. 
Use livestock and poultry disease diagnosis and monitoring methods, and strengthen the quarantine monitoring of livestock and poultry production areas, slaughter, transportation, and markets, and gradually strengthen the monitoring of feed and additives, veterinary drugs and biological products, animal health status, pest residues, and livestock farm environmental conditions , Livestock product processing and sales process, etc., in particular, strengthen supervision and law enforcement in the process of livestock product sales, and prevent illegal traders from using meat that does not meet quarantine and sanitary standards to disrupt the market and endanger people’s physical and mental health. Producing green animal products to achieve the sustainable development of human society also promotes and guarantees the sustainable development of animal husbandry. 
There is a problem
1 The degree of standardization is not high, and the overall production level is low
Among the 70 large-scale breeding farms surveyed, only 2 have basically met the 'six modernizations' standards (good breeding of livestock and poultry, facility breeding, standardization of production, institutionalization of epidemic prevention, harmless treatment of manure, and normalization of supervision) , The ratio is extremely low, and the degree of standardization is very far behind the EU and the United States.
2 The overall strength of feed and veterinary drug companies is low, and the market competitiveness is not strong
Over 80% of the 86 feed production enterprises surveyed have an annual production scale of less than 50,000 tons; of the 26 veterinary drug production enterprises, only 23% have an annual output value of more than 5 million yuan, which is far behind similar enterprises in brother provinces. Of the 26 veterinary drug manufacturers surveyed, 18 were simply mixing or sterilizing the purchased raw materials, and the product technology content was low; 12 of the 15 feed manufacturing companies had introduced technology, and their independent innovation capabilities were seriously insufficient. In terms of product research and development, only 5 out of 26 companies have established a dedicated research and development department, accounting for only 19.2%.
3 The service system needs to be strengthened urgently, and it is difficult to meet work needs
Among the 30 animal husbandry technology extension agencies, 73% of the units have working conditions that cannot meet their work needs. Village-level epidemic prevention staff are poorly paid, have low education, and are old. 74.4% of the epidemic prevention staff have an annual salary of less than 1,200 yuan; only 17.2% have a high school education or above; only 23.4% are under 40. The staffing of 70 county stations averaged 18.5 people, 73% of the units reported that the staffing was too small to meet the work needs, and 59% of the units had not recruited college graduates of their major in the past five years. 56% of counties and 40% of townships and townships have professional and technical personnel below 70%, and 17% of counties and 50% of townships and towns have more than 50% of employees over 46. Among the 100 survey subjects, 69% of the county stations and 60% of the townships and townships have tight working expenses, and it is difficult to guarantee the normal operation of work. Lack of labor protection for livestock and veterinary staff. In the province, only a few counties such as Ansai and Wuqi have provided commercial insurance such as medical insurance and accident insurance for epidemic prevention personnel.
4 lack of human resources, inconsistent with industrial development
The shortage of young, middle-aged and educated labor is prominent in rural areas. Among the 100 surveyed villages, more than 65% of the labor force is 45-60 years old, and less than 18% have a junior high school education level or above, which directly affects the promotion of advanced animal husbandry technology and management models; large-scale farms lack farm managers who understand both professional and business operations , Manager talents. Among the 70 large-scale breeding farms surveyed, 48.5% are lay owners; technology promotion lacks modern animal husbandry development service-oriented talents. In 30 animal husbandry technology promotion agencies, less than 8% of technicians are familiar with barn design and equipment configuration, only 8 people who can interpret DHI reports, and only 4 people who master TMR technology; technical support lacks laboratory testing and inspection talents. Of the 20 county-level animal epidemic control centers, only 11 counties can meet the needs of the normal work of veterinary laboratories. The existing human resources are not in harmony with the rapid development of animal husbandry.
5 Many restrictive factors, weak policy support
Large investment, high risk, high pollution, difficulty in obtaining loans, difficulty in land use, and difficulty in insurance. The 'three trilemma' problems have become the main factors restricting the development of animal husbandry. Every household has its own funds of 50,000 to 80,000 yuan, but a pig farmer that produces 200 pigs a year needs to invest about 180,000 yuan; to build a 'Shiyang model' (Shiyang broiler model is led by Shiyang Group, Adopting the 'company + farmer' order model, the group signs long-term breeding contracts with farmers to guide the construction of standardized broiler breeding pens, uniform supply of chicks, feed, medicine, epidemic prevention, and recovery of broilers), a pen for 5,000 broilers The housing needs to invest about 150,000 yuan, which exceeds the investment capacity of ordinary farmers; 68% of the survey respondents report that the risk of disease is the main factor restricting the development of animal husbandry, and 51% of the respondents report that the market risk is the main factor restricting the development of animal husbandry. Factors: With the construction of new countryside, the construction of ecological civilization, the integrated development of urban and rural areas, and the sustainable and healthy development of agriculture, environmental pollution has become the main factor restricting the large-scale development of animal husbandry. 63 questionnaires indicated that the difficulty of obtaining loans is the biggest obstacle restricting the expansion of livestock production, and only 12 of the 70 large-scale farms obtained bank credit. Fifty-eight questionnaires reflect that the difficulty of land use restricts the rapid expansion of the animal husbandry industry. There is a lack of a complete insurance system for high-risk breeding industries. For example, the insurance policy of 1,000 yuan for sows and the cost price of more than 3,000 yuan per sow are very different, which cannot effectively protect the interests of farmers, and the animal husbandry insurance system is not sound.