livestock machine mechanization and the development
The development level of animal husbandry equipment mechanization is an important symbol of animal husbandry equipment modernization and an important manifestation of the comprehensive production capacity of animal husbandry equipment. Since 2004, the Central Committee’s No. 1 Document has focused on 'agriculture, rural areas, and farmers' every year, and has proposed to accelerate the development of mechanization of animal husbandry equipment, giving strong support to mechanization of animal husbandry equipment. Especially with the promulgation of the livestock machine mechanization Promotion Law in 2004 and the implementation of the subsidy policy for the purchase of agricultural machinery, the development of our country's animal husbandry equipment mechanization has accelerated significantly, the level of agricultural machinery operations has improved significantly, and animal husbandry equipment production has entered a new stage of mechanical operations. The total power of animal husbandry equipment machinery increased from 640 million kilowatts in 2004 to 988 million kilowatts in 2017, and the comprehensive mechanization rate of animal husbandry equipment increased from 34% in 2004 to 67.2% in 2017. The proportion of employees in the primary industry in the total number of employees in society increased from 50% in 2004. % Reduced to 30% in 2017. The development of animal husbandry equipment mechanization has contributed significantly to the growth of our country's animal husbandry equipment econoour. On December 30, 2018, the State Council issued the 'Guiding Opinions on Accelerating the Transformation and Upgrading of livestock machine mechanization and Agricultural Machinery Equipment Industry', which stated that the total power of agricultural machinery nationwide will be stabilized at around 1.1 billion kilowatts by 2025, and the comprehensive mechanization rate of crop cultivation and harvest across the country will reach 75 %, pointed out the direction for the future development of our country's animal husbandry equipment mechanization.
The basic concepts and related research of animal husbandry equipment mechanization
1. The concept of animal husbandry equipment mechanization
For the concept of animal husbandry equipment mechanization, there is no unified and complete explanation . The current definition generally accepted by theoretical and academic circles is based on the 'Mechanization of Animal husbandry equipment Engineering' edited by Yu Youtai: 'Mechanization of animal husbandry equipment refers to the process of technological transformation and economic development of animal husbandry equipment production by gradually replacing human and animal power with machines' . The “Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Promotion of Livestock husbandry equipment Mechanization” promulgated and implemented in 2004 defines livestock machine mechanization as: “livestock machine mechanization refers to the use of advanced and applicable livestock machinery to equip livestock, improve livestock production and management conditions, and continuously improve livestock production technology and econoour The process of benefit and ecological benefit'.
2. Evaluation method of livestock machine mechanization
At present, the level of animal husbandry equipment mechanization is widely used to measure the development level of animal husbandry equipment mechanization. The main analysis is the level of mechanical tillage (mechanical tillage), mechanical planting (mechanical sowing), and mechanical harvesting (mechanical harvest) in the production link of the planting industry, using weighted average Value (with weights of 0.4, 0.3, and 0.3) or the arithmetic mean value. Scholars such as Lu Bingfu  have concluded through research that the level of mechanization of animal husbandry equipment is simple and easy to implement, and it is highly maneuverable. Generally speaking, the situation of mechanized animal husbandry equipment can be basically evaluated. It does not fully reflect the substitution effect of animal husbandry equipment machinery on animal husbandry equipment labor. Comprehensively, objectively, accurately and truly reflect the development level of animal husbandry equipment mechanization. The animal husbandry equipment mechanization level and the animal husbandry equipment mechanization index are calculated in consideration of the role of animal husbandry equipment labor and animal husbandry equipment machinery in animal husbandry equipment production, and it is more appropriate to measure the development level of animal husbandry equipment mechanization. At the same time, it is also proposed that in the process of evaluating the development level of animal husbandry equipment mechanization, corresponding indicators can be used according to needs and actual conditions. The evaluation index system of the development level of animal husbandry equipment mechanization should also be adjusted with the development of social econoour.
3. Research on the contribution of the development of animal husbandry equipment mechanization to the development of our country's animal husbandry equipment econoour
Zhao Kun  constructed the evaluation model of the transformation index of our country's animal husbandry equipment economic development mode from four levels of animal husbandry equipment input power, technology level, intensive benefits and animal husbandry equipment resources and environment, and obtained the influence of the development level of animal husbandry equipment mechanization on the transformation of animal husbandry equipment economic development mode. Reached 8.423%, second only to the degree of intensive 15.85%. Qiu Hongchen used the statistical data from 1978 to 2011 to study the relationship between animal husbandry equipment mechanization and animal husbandry equipment econoour through co-integration test and Granger causality test. The results showed that for every 1% increase in the total power of agricultural machinery, the animal husbandry equipment econoour will increase by 0.431463%; It fully shows that the mechanization of animal husbandry equipment has a significant role in promoting the economic growth of animal husbandry equipment. In addition, the related research of Bai Bai Professor Park shows that increasing farmers' income is to increase labor productivity, and animal husbandry equipment machinery is the key to improving animal husbandry equipment labor productivity. Zhou Zhen showed that the contribution of animal husbandry equipment mechanization to the increase of grain production during 2004-2013 was 8.73%. When the product of mechanical farming, mechanical sowing, and mechanical harvest is used as the measurement index of mechanization, the contribution of mechanization to the increase of food production during the same period Up to 9.62%. Zhou Zhen  showed that the contribution of animal husbandry equipment mechanization to labor transfer from 1998 to 2012 was 21.59%, and the contribution of mechanization to labor transfer was 72.50% when the product of mechanical farming, mechanical sowing, and mechanical harvesting was used as the measurement index of mechanization. Mi Mingzhu  took Hebei Province as an example to study and put forward the mutually reinforcing relationship between livestock machine mechanization and land scale management.
4. Factors influencing the development level of animal husbandry equipment mechanization
Zhao Kun  analyzed the development factors of animal husbandry equipment mechanization by selecting 12 indicators in four dimensions, and the results showed that farmers' income level, farmers' education level, animal husbandry equipment policies, surplus labor transfer, and the scale of arable land are the main factors affecting the development of animal husbandry equipment mechanization in our country. Influencing factors. Quantitative analysis of various factors shows that the most important driving factor for the development of mechanization of animal husbandry equipment in our country is the level of arable land, with a coefficient of elasticity of 22.11%. Secondly, the degree of surplus labor transfer, the elasticity coefficient is 21.54%; the elasticity coefficient of farmers' education level is 21.39%; the elasticity coefficient of government policy support for agricultural machinery is 17.65%; the contribution of farmers' income level is the smallest, 17.30%. From the analysis results, it can be seen that institutional factors have the greatest impact on the development of mechanization of animal husbandry equipment, that is, the problem of arable land and the problem of farmers' migration. Tao Ya  used provincial panel data from 1996 to 2015 to analyze the impact of production agglomeration on the level of mechanization of animal husbandry equipment. The research results show that: 1) The level of agglomeration of animal husbandry equipment production in our country has been continuously improved, which has led to the improvement of the level of animal husbandry equipment mechanization. But when the production agglomeration level is less than 0.75, the animal husbandry equipment machinery cannot be used well. 2) In the context of differences in resource endowments, regions with a higher level of production agglomeration will favor the use of large and medium-sized livestock machinery. 3) In terms of changes in the demand structure of livestock machine mechanization, the number of large and medium-sized machinery is not affected by the level of production agglomeration. Zhou Xiaoshi showed through research that the transfer of livestock labor has a significant role in promoting the process of mechanization of animal husbandry equipment. A 1% decrease in the proportion of livestock labor in the total labor force can increase the total power of agricultural machinery by 1.85%; the income effect and substitution effect of the transfer of livestock labor are the same. It has a significant role in promoting the mechanization of animal husbandry equipment. For every 1% increase in the wage income of farmers and the input of farmers’ agricultural machinery, the total power of agricultural machinery will increase by 0.32% and 0.18% respectively; taking into account the difference in planting structure and topography between the north and the south, the role of animal husbandry equipment labor transfer is also significant . It can be concluded that the development level of animal husbandry equipment mechanization, the level of arable land scale, and the transfer of surplus animal husbandry equipment labor are mutually reinforcing.
Development status of animal husbandry equipment mechanization in our country
1. Development status of our country's animal husbandry equipment mechanization
In recent years, our country’s agricultural machinery manufacturing level has steadily improved, the total amount of agricultural machinery equipment has continued to grow, and the level of agricultural machinery operations has rapidly improved. Animal husbandry equipment production has shifted from relying mainly on human and animal power to relying on mechanical power, and has entered a new stage of mechanization. In 2018, our country's animal husbandry equipment mechanization process took a big step. The total power of animal husbandry equipment machinery exceeded 1 billion kilowatts, and the comprehensive mechanization level of crop cultivation and harvesting exceeded 67%. 93 Ping An agricultural machinery demonstration counties (cities) were created nationwide, with major crops throughout the process With 302 mechanized demonstration counties, our country has become the world's largest agricultural machinery producer and user. In 2018, the “Guiding Opinions of the State Council on Accelerating the Transformation and Upgrading of Animal husbandry equipment Mechanization and Agricultural Machinery Equipment Industry” mentioned that our country has entered a new stage dominated by mechanization. However, it is affected by factors such as diversified demand for agricultural machinery products and complex operating environment for machinery and equipment. The problems of unbalanced and insufficient development of livestock machine mechanization and agricultural machinery equipment industry are more prominent. In particular, the problems of insufficient scientific and technological innovation of agricultural machinery, insufficient effective supply of some agricultural machinery equipment, insufficient integration of agricultural machinery and agronoour, and lagging construction of agricultural machinery operation infrastructure need to be resolved urgently.
2. There are major problems in the development of mechanization of animal husbandry equipment in our country
(1) Unbalanced development level of livestock machine mechanization
our country's vast territory, natural endowments, farming systems and economic conditions in different regions have led to an extremely uneven development of animal husbandry equipment mechanization. From the perspective of regional development, the development of agricultural mechanization is faster and higher in plain areas, and slower in hilly areas, and the level is still very low. Generally speaking, it is higher in the north, lower in the south, and lowest in the southwest. In the same area, food crops are higher, cash crops are lower, plantation is higher, and breeding and aquaculture are lower. The problem of unbalanced and insufficient development is still very prominent .
(2) Insufficient development of agricultural mechanization and agricultural machinery equipment industry
In 2017, the total power of animal husbandry equipment machinery was 978.83 million kilowatts, of which 6,708,800 were large and medium-sized tractors, and 16,342,400 were small tractors. Among the livestock machinery, there were more small and medium-sized machines, but few large-scale machines; among the livestock machines, there were more farming machines, such as harvesting, plant protection, and straw. Few processing machinery; Few supporting equipment for animal husbandry equipment machinery; Few commonly used grain operation machinery, Few special agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry equipment, sideline fishing, and facility livestock husbandry equipment machinery; Few low-end low-quality machinery and few high-end intelligent machinery. The effective supply of agricultural machinery equipment is insufficient, and the reliability and applicability of the machinery need to be further improved . According to Zhao Kun  to measure the transformation index of our country's animal husbandry equipment economic development mode from 1990 to 2011, the research shows that the power level of agricultural machinery has a positive correlation with the transformation of animal husbandry equipment economic development mode, and the effect is significant; therefore, it is necessary to further promote the adjustment of agricultural machinery configuration structure , Especially to increase the power of large-scale machinery and facility livestock machinery.
Figure 1 The dynamic changes of various animal husbandry equipment machinery in our country in the 40 years after reform and opening up
(3) The ability of agricultural machinery technology innovation is not strong
The 2018 'National Animal husbandry equipment Machinery Industry Technology Innovation Report (2017)' pointed out that our country's agricultural machinery industry lacks innovation capabilities and lacks core competitiveness; insufficient effective supply capabilities and lack of high-end products; backward manufacturing techniques and low production efficiency, and quality has always been a bottleneck ; Foreign brands monopolize the high-end market, and international competition is intensified; the industrial system is imperfect, and industry coordination and input need to be strengthened. The focus of our country's agricultural machinery industry should be to break through key technical problems, enrich the types of agricultural machinery products, improve the quality of agricultural machinery products, build a well-known brand of agricultural machinery equipment, and promote our country's transformation from a large agricultural machinery manufacturing country to a strong agricultural machinery manufacturing country.
(4) Insufficient integration of agricultural machinery and agronoour
Agricultural machinery and agronoour are interdependent in modern animal husbandry equipment, and the two adapt and cooperate with each other to promote the development of modern animal husbandry equipment. However, in terms of institutional mechanisms, due to the separate management of agricultural machinery, agricultural technology, integrated animal husbandry equipment development, water conservancy, and land departments, there is a lack of unified planning and coordination. The applicability of breed selection, cultivation systems and mechanized production needs to be strengthened. Agricultural machinery and agronoour Can't integrate well. Secondly, the circulation of livestock land has been greatly developed in terms of scale and quantity, but the quality that can be operated on a large scale is not high, resulting in inconsistent farming systems, inconsistent varieties, and scattered agricultural machinery operations. Finally, the poor working quality of livestock workers also restricts the integration and development of agricultural machinery and agronoour.
The development prospects of animal husbandry equipment mechanization in our country
1. Increased policy support and guarantee
In 2018, the Ministry of Animal husbandry equipment and the Ministry of Finance jointly issued the 'Guiding Opinions on the Implementation of Subsidies for the Purchase of Agricultural Machinery in 2018-2020'. For the first time, open subsidies were fully implemented for key machines and tools for full mechanization. For the first time, imported machines and tools were allowed to enjoy equal subsidies. Pilot plant protection unmanned aircraft) expanded to nationwide. In 26 provinces, the pilot program has promoted the 'three-in-one' trial of subsidy application for mobile apps, machine QR codes, and Internet of Things, making it a reality for farmers to apply for subsidies 'at most once. Highlight advanced application and green ecological orientation, implement key subsidies and supplementary supplements for machinery and tools in water, fertilizer, medicine, and resource utilization of livestock waste, and support the application of green agricultural mechanization technology through operating subsidies, and mechanization throughout the year The areas of deep loosening and deep plowing, conservation tillage, and straw returning to fields exceed 150 million mu, 110 million mu, and 750 million mu respectively, which have added new momentum to the sustainable development of animal husbandry equipment.
2. The momentum of comprehensive mechanization is strong
Last year, the General Office of the Ministry of Animal husbandry equipment and Rural Affairs issued the Action Plan for Promoting the Full-scale Development of Key Technologies for the Promotion of livestock machine mechanization in 2018. The National Fruit and Vegetable Tea Production Mechanization Promotion Conference was held for the first time to promote the expansion of mechanization from bulk crops to cash crops such as fruit and vegetable tea. The planting industry is advancing towards animal husbandry equipment, fishery, primary processing industry, and facility animal husbandry equipment, from plain areas to hilly and mountainous areas, and from animal husbandry equipment production to farmers’ lives and rural ecology. The national promotion area of ??mechanized technology of fruit and vegetable tea has exceeded 390 million mu times, the comprehensive mechanization rate of fruit and vegetable production is close to 30%, and the mechanization mode of the whole process of tea planting and processing has begun to be popularized in major production areas such as Zhejiang. In Chongqing, Hunan and other places, the pace of 'mechanicalization' of farmland has accelerated, and the mechanization of hilly and mountainous areas has begun to accelerate.
3. Strengthen the cultivation of the main body
In late November 2018, the Ministry of Animal husbandry equipment and Rural Affairs organized a national agricultural machinery socialization service upgrade and upgrade site meeting in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province to guide the development of 'full-process trusteeship', 'machine-agricultural integration', 'full-process mechanization + integrated agricultural services' and other professional integration New entities, new business formats and new models. Carry out rotation training for the chairman of 10,000 agricultural machinery cooperatives, actively develop 'Internet + agricultural machinery' services, innovate organizational management and operating mechanisms, and further enhance the development momentum and vitality of agricultural machinery cooperatives. In 2018, our country's agricultural machinery operation service organizations reached 187,000, including 70,000 agricultural machinery cooperatives. The national agricultural machinery socialized service area exceeded 4.2 billion mu, which effectively promoted the organic connection between smallholder production and modern animal husbandry equipment development.
4. The market has huge potential for development
our country is not only a large grain country, but also a large population. Therefore, our country has always maintained a strong demand for grain. Under such circumstances, the development of animal husbandry equipment machinery in our country will also have a huge market development potential. Especially at present, under the trend of urbanization and population aging, our country’s rural youth labor force is constantly being lost and reduced, and animal husbandry equipment machinery is in automation and intelligence. Chemical and other mechanical products contain huge market potential.