The mechanization of animal husbandry equipment refers to the process in which agricultural operations are transferred from the use of human and animal power to the use of machinery, and manual labor is replaced by mechanical operations. An important part of livestock modernization. Including: (1) mechanization of production operations in agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, sideline, fishery and other sectors, such as crop cultivation, irrigation and drainage, plant protection, harvesting, fishery stocking, salvage, etc.; (2) mechanization of product transportation and processing; (3) ) The mechanization of the basic construction of animal husbandry, etc. Its function is to increase labor productivity, reduce labor intensity, and increase the output per unit area of ??livestock.
Use various machinery instead of hand tools to the maximum Shandong Qingyun Yiyuan Agricultural Machinery Shandong Qingyun Yiyuan Agricultural Machinery Line production. One of the basic contents of animal husbandry modernization. For example, in the planting industry, tractors, planters, harvesters, powered irrigation machines, motor vehicles, etc. are used for land plowing, planting, harvesting, irrigation, field management, transportation and other operations, so that all production processes mainly rely on mechanical power And electricity instead of relying on human and animal power. The mechanization of animal husbandry equipment can save labor, reduce labor intensity, increase the productivity of animal husbandry, and enhance the ability to overcome natural disasters.
effect The use of machinery is a basic feature of modern animal husbandry. It is important for utilizing resources, resisting natural disasters, promoting modern animal husbandry technology, promoting intensive animal husbandry operations, increasing unit yield and total output, improving animal husbandry productivity, reducing agricultural product costs, and reducing farmers’ labor intensity and Narrowing the gap between workers and peasants plays an important role. Under socialist conditions, it is also an important material basis for urban-rural cooperation and worker-peasant alliances.
Generation and development The mechanization of animal husbandry equipment began after capitalism invaded animal husbandry, and its development generally experienced three stages in European and American countries: ①Semi-mechanized stage. Roughly from the middle to the end of the 19th century. It is characterized by simple animal husbandry machinery that is widely used in animal husbandry production. ②Basic mechanization stage. Roughly from the early 20th century to the 1950s. The feature is that the main operations of the main crops generally use tractor-drawn livestock machinery. ③Comprehensive mechanization (or highly mechanized) stage. It began around the 1950s. It is characterized by the extensive use of more advanced animal husbandry machinery in all aspects of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and fishery, and its pre- and post-natal departments. Since the 1980s, due to the increasing application of electronic computers in animal husbandry, the mechanization of animal husbandry equipment is developing towards automation. The countries and regions of the Third World began to use livestock machinery to varying degrees only after World War II. However, due to political, economic and technological factors, the level of mechanization in most countries (regions) is still low.
Overview of China's Development Old China Period In the semi-colonial and semi-feudal period, China's animal husbandry production tools were extremely backward, which was one of the important reasons for the very low level of animal husbandry productivity at that time.
Early Days After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, with the development of socialist industrialization and the realization of co-operation in animal husbandry, the cause of mechanization of animal husbandry equipment has grown from nothing to more, and has made remarkable achievements. So far, although animal husbandry production in most areas is still based on human and animal power operations, animal husbandry machinery has become an important part of animal husbandry productivity.
Since the reform and opening up Since 1978, the mechanization of animal husbandry equipment in China has entered a new period of development, and a path of mechanization of animal husbandry equipment suitable for China's national conditions is being formed. The basic points are:
①The mechanization of livestock equipment is based on the premise of improving economic efficiency. It not only pays attention to increasing output and saving labor, but also Mechanization of livestock equipment Mechanization of livestock equipment As farmers increase their income.
②Determine the development speed of mechanization of animal husbandry equipment according to national conditions and national strength, and adapt to the situation of industry, energy, technology, capital and labor arrangements.
③In a fairly long period of time, animal husbandry production should implement the combination of manpower, animal power, mechanical power, and electricity, as well as the combination of improved farm tools, semi-mechanized machinery and modern livestock machinery.
④The mechanization of animal husbandry equipment is to realize the comprehensive development of animal husbandry and comprehensive agricultural and industrial management services. Its scope includes not only planting, but also forestry, animal husbandry, sideline, fishery, and pre-production (such as seed processing, feed preparation) and post-production of various industries. (Such as agricultural products processing, refrigeration, warehousing, packaging, transportation) all links also include rural construction and farmers’ lives.
⑤The mechanization of animal husbandry equipment is not in a hurry for completeness, and priority should be given to the links that have significant effects on increasing production and income, and can reduce the stress and labor intensity of busy farming; do not insist on uniformity in the region, and support the areas with good conditions.
⑥The mechanization of animal husbandry equipment should be combined with other animal husbandry technology policies, not only to promote advanced modern animal husbandry technology, but also to adapt to inheriting fine traditional technologies, so as to create China's own animal husbandry machinery system.
⑦The agricultural machinery products are mainly small, combining large, medium and small, based on the principles of low price, high quality, low energy consumption, and convenient use and repair.
⑧ Pay attention to the electrification of animal husbandry, especially the development of rural small hydropower stations.
⑨ Properly arrange the outlet of the labor saved in the mechanization process.
⑩The ownership and management of livestock machinery are diversified to adapt to the new situation of the rural economy after the implementation of the joint production contract system. In addition to being collectively and state-owned, livestock machinery can also be owned by individual farmers. In the form of operation, it can be operated by households, farmers' partnerships, farmers' contracted operations, and agricultural machinery services (teams, stations, companies) established by the state or cooperative distribution organizations. Attach importance to the intellectual investment in the mechanization of animal husbandry equipment, and cultivate a large number of talents who can meet the needs of the mechanization of animal husbandry equipment, and so on. The mechanization of animal husbandry in my country on the basis of collectivization is the fundamental way to develop animal husbandry productivity.
Market size The development model of animal husbandry machinery was different in different periods. During the collectivization period, because the production cooperation group in the form of people’s communes shared the means of production, large and medium-sized animal husbandry machinery Growth of total power of livestock machinery Growth of total power of livestock machinery The rapid development of machinery and equipment; and the land contract responsibility system began to privatize the means of production. During this period, small tractors developed rapidly due to their flexibility and low cost. With the improvement of the level of economic development and the reduction of the livestock population, the productivity advantages of large and medium-sized livestock machinery have begun to appear, and livestock machinery has gradually developed towards large-scale development.
Take the large and medium-sized tractors and their supporting equipment as an example. After the downturn in the late communalization and the early stage of the land contract responsibility system, the growth rate of their ownership increased significantly around 2000, and the growth rate of combine harvesters also increased significantly around 2000. . Increase in the number of large and medium-sized tractors and their accessories and furniture Increase in the number of large and medium-sized tractors and their accessories and furniture
In 2011, the comprehensive level of my country's agricultural mechanization reached 54%. With the 'Twelfth Five-Year Plan' policy direction of 'promoting the integration of animal husbandry technology, labor process mechanization, and production and management information' and 'accelerating the mechanization of animal husbandry equipment, promoting the integration of agricultural machinery and agronomy, the comprehensive mechanization level of farming and harvesting will reach about 60% 'With the proposed policy goals, my country's animal husbandry machinery industry will face greater opportunities.
At the National Agricultural Mechanization Work Conference on January 14, 2015, Zhang Taolin, Deputy Minister of Animal Husbandry, stated that in 2014, the total power of animal husbandry machinery nationwide reached 1.076 billion kilowatts, a year-on-year increase of 3.57%; the level of agricultural mechanization reached more than 61%, which was achieved one year ahead of schedule. 'Twelfth Five-Year Plan' goals. In the whole year, a total of 150 million mu of land preparation was completed in deep loosening, exceeding the goal of 100 million mu in the 2014 government work report. The 61% agricultural mechanization rate means that my country’s livestock production method has achieved a historic leap from human and animal power to mechanical operations. At the end of 2004, the first law in the history of the development of agricultural mechanization in my country, the 'Law of Promoting the Mechanization of Livestock Equipment' was formally implemented. Since then, the development of agricultural mechanization has ushered in a golden decade. The central government has invested more than 120 billion yuan in agricultural machinery purchase subsidies and subsidized more than 35 million units (sets) of agricultural machinery. The level of agricultural mechanization has increased more than the 35 years before the law was implemented, and the total output value of the agricultural machinery industry has increased from 85.4 billion yuan to 357.1 billion yuan.