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milking machines: knowledge, selection and maintenance

milking machines: knowledge, selection and maintenance

2020-08-04


Milking machine

Livestock or livestock product is a must in our day life, in which, milk is more important. In this article, we will talk about milking machine that matters of milk quality a lot.


Milking is the last process of dairy cow production facing the market, which directly affects the safety and health of milk products and the economic benefits of dairy cow breeding industry.


Milking machine is a very important livestock equipment in the process of modern dairy farmers.

Especially in the number of cattle and lack of labor in the dairy farm, milking machine is indispensable.


In areas where there is no shortage of Labour, milking machines are also used in order to maintain the high quality of milk throughout the milking process.

               
Milking machine

Mechanical milking vs artificial milking


1. Milking machine can reduce labor intensity and improve production efficiency.

According to the field survey of dairy farmers, manual milking labor accounts for 60% of the overall workload of dairy farming, and mechanical milking can reduce labor by 75% or so.

Traditional artificial milking, each person can only raise and manage 5-8 cows;

The application of mobile milking machine milking, each person can raise and manage 10-20 cows;

If a fishbone milking hall is used for milking, 30-60 cows can be raised and managed per person, and mechanical milking is 6-8 times more efficient than manual milking.

Therefore, increasing the promotion and application of milking machinery can achieve cost saving and efficiency increase in dairy farming industry and obtain good economic benefits.


2. The milk extruded by machine is hygienic and high in price, which is welcomed by dairy enterprises.

After testing and proving: the application of mechanical technology milking can effectively avoid fresh milk and the outside of the contact, so that the bacteria content decreased 80% - 90%.

Mechanical milking fresh milk through the pipeline into the milk bucket, milk tank, the outside dust, weeds and other dirty things are not easy to fall into the fresh milk, to ensure the maximum extent of the health requirements of fresh milk.

According to the investigation, when local dairy enterprises purchase fresh milk, the price of milk extruded by machine is 0.15-0.4 yuan higher than that by hand on average.


3. Mechanical milking can reduce udder disease and increase milk yield.

Compared with manual milking, the infection rate of all kinds of blight in cow can be reduced by at least 3 times, which can effectively prevent the occurrence of blight in cow.

Because mechanical milking is uniform and smooth, it can thoroughly milk the remaining milk in the milk pool, so that the lactation effect of the breast is better, thus improving the milk yield of the cow.

Therefore, the application of mechanical milking is an effective way to ensure the health of cows and improve their milk yield.


4. Milking with mechanical technology is an important production link in the development of modern dairy farming and an important symbol of modern dairy farming.

               

Applicable scope of milking machine


The milking machine is suitable for cows with healthy body, good udder structure, well-proportioned nipple and suitable length and thickness.

With mechanical milking, the health of the cow is paramount.


Cows are not healthy and cannot be made to produce high-quality milk.

For example, after the cow calved, its constitution is poor, breast edema did not eliminate, should try to use manual milking, to avoid mechanical milking damage to nipple.


Milking machine classification


1. Bucket milking machine: The milk is extrude and sucked directly into the bucket through the milking cup group under vacuum.

After each cow is milked, disconnect the vacuum of the pail and pour the milk into the collection container.

The vacuum of the bucket comes from the vacuum system installed in the machine room, and a convenient vacuum plug valve is installed in the vacuum pipeline between every two cow positions, so that the milker can easily connect and disconnect the vacuum and successfully complete the milking task.


2. Mobile milking machine: the unit mobile milking machine is equipped with a set of milking machine, milking 1 cow each time, one person operates, milking about 12-15 cows per hour.

Double mobile milking machine with 2 sets of milking machine, can milk 2 cows at the same time each time, one person operation, about 20-24 cows per hour milking.


3. Pipe milking machine: installed in a shed of about 100 cows, suitable for large and medium-sized cattle farms.

During milking, the milk flows directly to the tank through the stainless steel main milk tube installed in the barn to ensure the hygienic quality and freshness of the milk.


4. Hall milking machine: Such as fish bone milking machine, it is the most modern milking equipment.

In the milking process, it provides easy and comfortable milking environment for operators and cows, which ensures the hygienic quality of milk and greatly improves the working efficiency. It is the preferred equipment for large and medium-sized ranches.

Milking machine

Correct choice of milking machine from livestock equipment manufacturer


Generally, distributed dairy farmers with 5-20 milking cows can choose to equip with bucket milking machines.

Small-scale dairy farmers with 30-80 milking cows can choose small and medium-sized milking equipment such as mobile milking machine.

Large dairy farmers with more than 100 milking cows, dairy farming districts and collecting stations should be equipped with hall milking machines and other large and medium-sized milking machinery equipment. Users can determine specific models and specifications according to the number of milking cows.

At present domestic and foreign cow milking machine or livestock equipment manufacturers, brands and models more, its performance and quality are basically close, but the price difference is large, the general price and quality of imported equipment is relatively high, domestic cost performance is relatively more reasonable.

               
Milking machine

Daily operation and maintenance of milking machine


1. Preparation of milking machine


(1) Cow equipment cleaning and commissioning: Before milking, flush the milking machine pipes, milk pipes, measuring bottles, milk collectors, lining of milk cups and milk collecting cans with hot water circulating at about 40℃ for 3-5 minutes to ensure that the sanitary conditions meet the requirements, and check whether the milking system can operate normally.


(2) Parameter check: The vacuum pressure and pulsation frequency of milking machine are two very important performance parameters, which should be carefully checked and adjusted.

In general, the working vacuum pressure of various milking machines is 50kPa and the pulsation frequency is 60 times per minute.


(3) Protection and fixation of cows: In the first month of using the milking machine for the first time, the cows are not used to the way of milking by the machine. During the milking process, they are easy to panic and disturbance, which affects the milking operation. Therefore, the cows should be protected and fixed well before milking.

First, tie a noose around the cow's horns. Then tie a noose around the front of the cow's head. Fasten the cow to the railing.


2. Operation process of milking machine


(1) Breast examination

Before milking, the health of the udder must be checked, and cows with poor udder condition must be treated separately.


(2) Nipple cleaning.

Before milking, use a towel dipped in hot water containing 1% -- 2% bleach at 40 -- 45℃ or sodium hypochlorite disinfectant to scrub the udder and nipple of the cow and dry them with a dry towel, preferably one towel for one cow.


(3) Nipple bath.

Use a plastic cup of 3% sodium hypochlorite disinfectant to bathe each nipple for 20-30 seconds before drying it with a towel and replacing it regularly.


(4) Discard the first three handfuls.

Squeeze out three handfuls of milk and discard before strapping on a milking cup.

The purpose is to check whether there is inflammation in the milk of the cow, but also to produce massage stimulation effect on the milk of the cow, promote milk release, shorten the milking time.


(5) Put on a milk cup for milking.

After the cow's nipples, udders swell up, should be timely milking cup set on the nipples began milking.

Oxytocin's effect is usually maintained at seven to eight minutes, but if the cup is not pumped in time, the oxytocin's effect is shortened and the amount of milk left in the breast increases.

It is generally required that the milking cup be set up within 1 minute after squeezing out three buckets of milk.

Specific method is: from the left hand opposite of the milk area to start clockwise in turn cup, both convenient and safe.

Each cup must be fitted in a sliding way and air should be minimized into the upper corner of the cup.


(6) Remove milking cup of milking machine.

Milking time varies with the amount of milk produced by the cow, generally 6-8 minutes can be milked.

When the milk in the slowest milk area is finished, close the vacuum of the collector and unload the milk cup after 2-3 seconds.


(7) During milking, the milk flow can be observed through the peep-glass tube on the milker.

If there is no milk flow, close the switch on the milking pail or the switch on the catheter, gently remove the milking cup and hang it on the lid of the milking pail.


3. Routine maintenance on  milking machine


(1) After each milking, all parts passing through the milk should be washed in a timely manner.

The specific method is to rinse with clean water first, then put in hot detergent (temperature 70℃, containing 1% alkali), wash with a brush, finally clean with 80℃ hot water, dry for later use.


(2) The rubber cover inside the milk cup should be removed and cleaned, but to prevent deformation due to high water temperature. At the same time, check whether the rubber cover is in good condition without leakage. If there is any leakage phenomenon, it should be replaced immediately.

After cleaning the milk collector, the assembly should check whether the rubber gasket is in good condition and whether the holes in the walls are open with the atmosphere.

The glass tube on the cover of the milk jug and the switch into the hole should be carefully placed in the cleaning process, to avoid damage, leakage.


(3) Remove and wash the pulsator and vacuum hose once a week, and check whether the rubber film of the pulsator is intact and whether the holes on the wall of the pulsator are smooth with the atmosphere.

After assembly, adjust according to the pulse frequency of 60 times/min for use. It is necessary to replace the feeding tube in time, otherwise it will be difficult to milk and easy to breed bacteria due to its weak elasticity.

(4) Check the milk pump check valve once a week. If the check valve diaphragm breaks, air will enter the milk pump. It is recommended to buy an additional milk pump check valve as a spare.


(5) Check and clean vacuum regulator, sensor and vacuum pump belt once a month.

Wipe the valve and seat of the vacuum regulator with wet cloth, clean the filter screen of the sensor with soapy liquid, and then install it after drying.

The belt should be about 1.25cm in width when pressed by thumb. The belt should be replaced in time for wear. After replacing or adjusting the belt, check whether the two wheels are in a straight line.


4. Inspection of main components of milking machine


(1) Milk collecting apparatus: Keep the intake hole of the milk collecting apparatus clean. If the intake hole of the milk collecting apparatus is blocked, the milk in the milk collecting apparatus cannot be discharged smoothly, which will lead to the cup dropping of the milking apparatus and harm the milk of cows at the same time.

(2) Rubber parts: check whether there is air leakage in the rubber parts. Any wear or air leakage in the rubber parts should be replaced.

(3) Vacuum adjuster: the adjuster shall have an obvious air discharge sound, if it is not indicated that the vacuum air storage is insufficient.

Call a professional engineer if this is the case.

(4) Vacuum pump oil: should be kept within the required range.

The vacuum gauge should read the same before and after the cup.

The vacuum will drop slightly when the cup group is removed, but should rise to the original position within 5 seconds.

(5) Milk cup lining: If there is water or milk between the milk cup lining and the cup cover, it indicates that the lining is damaged and should be replaced in time.


5. Choice of milking machine wearing parts

Vulnerable parts of milking machine mainly include: rubber milk liner, milk tube, rubber vacuum tube, vacuum pump rotary plate, milk bucket cover seal ring, special cleaning brush, etc., pay attention to choose the same model and qualified spare parts when replacing.

Here are three main parts of the purchase principle.

(1) Rubber milk lining: The quality of the rubber milk lining is very important, the service life of the milk lining is generally calculated by the number of heads.

At present, the main service life of the milk lining has two kinds, namely 1500 head · times and 2500 head · times.

As a result of rubber milk lining cracks, poor elasticity or rupture will cause milking abnormal, threat to the health of cows or milk quality decline, therefore, conditional users should be timely replacement of the same type of imported rubber milk lining, this milk lining is particularly soft, elastic, can give good protection to the nipple.


(2) Milk tube: the inner diameter is required to be large enough, should not be less than 12.5mm, the inner wall is smooth, moderate soft and hard, with certain elasticity, no deformation under the working vacuum degree (50kPa), non-toxic and acid-proof, alkali resistant cleaning solution.

Some developed countries also require the use of new composite materials (such as silica gel) made of transparent milk tube, such milk tube observation, cleaning is very convenient, and long service life.


(3) Rotary vane of vacuum pump: it is an important part of vacuum pump. It is made of special wear-resisting material.

The quality of its performance determines the amount of vacuum pump and service life, so the replacement must choose a regular manufacturer of qualified products.


6. Notes for milking machine from livestock manufacturer

(1) In the process of cleaning the cow's nipples, the disinfected nipples must be dried in time, otherwise the milk cup will rise and compress the root of the nipples, which will cause difficulty in milk discharge, blood congestion of cow's nipples and mastitis.

(2) The first three handles of milk must be packed in special containers to reduce pollution to the environment.

(3) After squeezing out the first three milk and cleaning the breast, if the nipple and breast are not full, taut, it shows that there is no complete formation of breast discharge reflex, should continue to massage the breast, until the nipple, breast full before entering the best time for milking.

               


Cleaning procedures for large and medium sized milking equipment


Large and medium-sized milking equipment mainly refers to the pipeline type and hall type milking machine. Its daily cleaning mainly includes pre-washing, caustic washing, pickling and water cleaning four procedures.

1. Pre-flushing: Pre-flushing does not use any cleaning agent, only using soft water that is clean (in accordance with drinking water hygiene standards).

2. Alkaline washing: cyclic alkaline washing for 5 minutes. Immediately after each milking is pre-rinsed.

3. Pickling: The main purpose of pickling is to clean the residual minerals in the pipeline. A two-minute cycle pickling should be carried out once a week at a temperature of 35-36 ℃.

4. Water cleaning: After each alkaline and pickling, rinse with clean (drinking water sanitation standards) soft water for final cleaning.


In order to improve the cleaning effect of various pipelines, the vacuum degree can be increased to make the water flow rate exceed 1.5 m/s. The ejector of cow milking machine should be cleaned in the automatic cleaning device to make the water form the surging turbulence, so as to improve the washing effect. More info about cow equipment or cow milking machine, contact professional livestock equipment manufacturer, Qingdao Desing Farming Technology Co.,Ltd.


   
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