1. Facilities and equipment in general, the main facilities in the cowshed include: cow bed and tether equipment, feeding equipment, drinking water equipment, feces cleaning equipment and other related facilities such as the playground outside the house.
(1) cow bed the cow bed must ensure that the cows rest comfortably and quietly, keep the cows clean, facilitate milking operations (when milking in the shed) and easy to clean. Cattle beds should have a suitable slope, usually 1~1.5%. At present the cow bed USES the cement surface layer, and in the back of the line non - slip. In winter, in order to reduce the impact of cold on cow production, it is necessary to add bedding in cow bed. It is best to use rubber and other materials as cow bed surface layer. 1. Tethered cattle bed 2
(2) tethering equipment tethering equipment is used to limit the range of movement of cattle in the bed. The tethering equipment shall be in the form of soft chain, hard joint neck type/(3) feeding equipment. The feeding facilities of the cow shall include the equipment for transporting, conveying and distributing the feed, as well as the feeding channel and other facilities. There are two common feeding methods: a single type of whole-day diet compound feed, that is, silage and compound feed mixed into a mixed feed; In the case of bulk feeders, most of the concentrate is fed during milking, silage is fed in the playground or in the house trough, and green and hay are generally fed on the playground. (4) drinking water equipment the drinking water equipment in the cattle yard shall include transmission lines and automatic drinking water fountains or sinks. (5) feces cleaning equipment in the house 1. Feces cleaning channels and ditches 2. China's dairy farms use artificial manure. Mechanical nightsoil
Two, milking center and milking equipment
(I) the position of the milking hall of the milking center generally adopts the following two arrangements: 1. The milking hall is located in the center of the mature milking house; 2. The milking hall is located on one side of the mature milking house of several buildings
(2) milking equipment for milking cows 1. Milking equipment for milking cows in order to ensure that milking equipment does not cause harmful stimulation to cows, to increase milk production, to reduce disease and to reduce milk contamination, the following requirements shall be made for milking equipment. (1) physiological requirements (2) technical requirements 2. Types of milking equipment mechanical milking equipment can be divided into the following types according to the form: bucket type, pipeline type, milking hall type, mobile type and milking robot. The selection of the type of milking equipment, mainly by the size of the dairy farm and feeding technology. (1) pail milking device: mainly used in small and medium-sized cattle farms, the system consists of milking device and vacuum device. (2) pipeline milking device: suitable for medium size cattle farm in the tethered cowshed. Consists of the following six parts. Vacuum system, vacuum piping, milk piping, milking cup set, milk collection system and cleaning and disinfection system. (3) mobile milking device: suitable for milking cows in pasture with large range of activities. (4) milking hall type milking device: milking hall type milking system is suitable for specialized dairy farms, free feeding and free range feeding of milk
The milking hall is the most important part of the milking center. Milking stands in different forms and in different milking stalls are arranged according to different requirements. Milking machines, milk gauges, milk conveying equipment and washing equipment are arranged in each milking stall. The common milking table has the following forms. 1. March-past 2. Series 3. Side advance 4. Fishbone type 5. Rotating disc type (4) hoof bath hoof bath directly set in the cow return channel, dairy farm can according to the actual needs of 1~2 times a week hoof bath.
Pay attention to the following points when designing:
(1) as there is a hoof bath on the return channel, the speed of the cows returning to the cowshed is slowed down, so the hoof bath should be as far away from the milking table as possible to reduce the impact on it.
(2) the hoof bath is the same width as the return channel and is 15cm deep. It is required to hold at least 10cm deep liquid. The minimum length is 220cm, and the corresponding slope is set at both ends.
(3) in order to prevent a large number of cattle hoofs from falling into the hoof bath and contaminating the disinfectant, cattle can be let through the clear water before the hoof bath.
Silage facilities and silage equipment there are four main methods of silage, that is, silage in silos, silage towers and plastic bags, as well as land-based storage. Different silage methods and corresponding supporting facilities can be selected according to different conditions and dosage.
1. Selection of cellar site silos should be built near the cowshed, the terrain should be high dry, easy to drain, away from water and cesspool, do not build in the low-lying or under the shade of the trees, in order to prevent water leakage, air leakage and collapse.
2. The roof width of small silos is 2.0~4.0m, the depth is 2.0~3.0m, and the length is 3.0~15.0m. The width of the large cellar is 10.0~15.0m, the depth is 3.0~3.5m, and the length is 30.0~50.0m.
3. Build cellar earth cellar wall to want smooth, if use time is long, had better make it permanent cellar. The rectangular cellar corners are curved to allow silage to sink and remove residual air.
4. The volume of silage and the width and depth of silage silage are determined by the amount of silage fed per day, and it is usually advisable to dig in no less than 15cm of silage for daily feeding. After the width and depth are determined, the length of the silage can be calculated according to the silage demand, and the silage weight can also be calculated according to the silage volume and silage bulk density.
5. Loading and unloading equipment the silage can be loaded by a green feed cutter while it is being chopped, or by a trailer behind the green feed harvester for dump loading.
(2) surface storage surface storage is a relatively simple method. Choose dry, flat areas, preferably cement floors. All round cover with plastic film is strict, also can be in all round build on low wall, after spreading feed film to add green makings again. Generally, the stack is 1.5~2.0m high, 1.5~2.0m wide, and 3~5m long. The top is pressed down with dirt or heavy weights. This form has less storage and short storage period, which is suitable for small scale breeding.
(3) plastic bag storage using plastic bag silage has the following advantages: less investment, quick results, high comprehensive benefits; Silage of good quality, high content of crude protein, low content of crude fiber, high digestibility, good palatability, high intake, aromatic smell; The loss and waste are very few, the mildew loss, fluid loss and feeding loss are greatly reduced. Long shelf life, up to 1~2 years; Free from the influence of season, sun, rainfall and water table, they can be stacked in the open air; It can be harvested and dried intensively to complete silage production in a short time. Convenient storage and feeding; Save the cost of building the cellar and maintenance; Saved the land and labor occupied by building the cellar; Save the upper cellar labor; Not polluting the environment; Easy to transport and commercialize. The necessary condition is to cut the silage raw material short, cut fine, spray or put into plastic bags, exhaust the air and press after tying. If there is no pump, it should be packed tightly and the weight pressed tight.
Beef cattle farm facilities and equipment
(1) the cow bed can be plastered with cement, which has good thermal conductivity, is firm and durable, and is easy to clean and disinfect.
(2) there are two types of feeding slots, fixed and movable, which are arranged in front of the cow bed.
(3) the sink and trough are as indispensable as the trough in the house. Automatic drinking water fountain or water trough with faucet can be used. Cold area gutters require cold resistance, winter can use warm water if necessary.
(4) manure clearance channel the manure clearance channel is also a channel for cattle to enter and exit the manure clearance channel. Generally, a certain slope shall be set for the manure clearance channel and anti-slip grooves shall be set.
(5) feces and urine ditch artificial feces and urine ditch between the cow bed and channel generally set up feces and urine ditch, feces and urine ditch requirements for no leakage and smooth wall surface. The trench is 30~40 cm wide, 10~15 cm deep, and the longitudinal drainage slope is 1~2%.
(6) feed channel the feed channel is arranged at the front end of the trough, generally 10 cm above the ground and 1.5~2 cm wide.
(7) a sports ground shall be set up in a cowshed where breeding cattle and calves are raised. The playground is usually set up in a spare area between buildings, surrounded by a fence to let the cattle loose or tie them up. The playground is suitable for sanhe ground. Supplementary feeding trough and water trough shall be set up in the sports ground. Fattening cattle generally need to reduce exercise, after feeding, tie to the playground to rest, and reduce feed consumption, improve weight gain. For breeding cows, get plenty of exercise and sunbathe every day. Exercise should be compulsory for bulls to ensure their health.
(8) other equipment
1. Management equipment: it mainly includes brushing cattle body instruments, tethering instruments, cleaning barn instruments and weight testing instruments. In addition, it also needs to be equipped with ear labels, bloodless emasculators and body measurement instruments.
2. Feed production and conveying equipment beef cattle farm equipment also includes veterinary epidemic prevention equipment, on-site and off-site transportation equipment and public engineering equipment