Beef cattle breeding techniques
1. Feeding times with headlock feeder
In order to reduce labor intensity and improve feeding effect, two feeding times a day, 12 hours apart, and one time in the morning and one time in the evening are generally adopted. Ensure that the cow has sufficient rest, rumination time, improve gastrointestinal digestive function, reduce the number of movements.
2. Feeding way
The more ideal feeding method is fine, coarse, green according to a certain proportion of mixed together for feeding, can improve the digestibility of feed. But for larger fattening farms, this is impossible because of the labor costs. At this time can also be used to separate feeding method, to feed the first coarse material, after feeding concentrate, to ensure that the cattle can eat full, promote the cattle to eat more, reduce the amount of leftover in the trough. For coarse material, it is best to pass wet mix, soak, ferment, cut short, grinding and so on processing, in order to improve the utilization rate of digestion.
Chi lechuan had found out a set of long-term feeding cattle induced to increase feed intake, promote the growth of the method, the effect is better. Specific measures are as follows:
(1) the selection of shelf cattle to be strictly screened. The masses have the experience of choosing cattle with a large mouth and a great appetite for food. (2) at the beginning of fattening, the proportion of roughage in the diet should not be less than 50%, and more roughage can exercise gastrointestinal functions and increase gastric capacity. Feed composition should be diversified.
(3) feed roughage first, feed concentrate later, feed less frequently, feed water at last.
(4) if anorexia occurs in beef cattle during feeding, green feed with good quality and palatability can be added to restore and enhance gastrointestinal functions; Also can change the feed form, such as the use of cooking, pressing and other methods of processing feed, improve the palatability.
(5) ensure fresh and sufficient drinking water for day and night in livestock water trough.
(6) increase the diet to help digestion of drugs, use additives.
(7) feed supply should gradually increase, should not be too fierce, too urgent, otherwise easy to cause waste or cause indigestion. Change feed should be a process, do not change one time, should have 1 week or so of time transition generally.
3. Feeding way in cow stable
There are mainly three ways: grazing feeding, tethered enclosure in livestock stable and combination of grazing enclosure.
Grazing feeding, available on grassland in pastoral areas, is suitable for cattle of all ages and production purposes. In agricultural areas, the main use of the river beach, beach, grass hill, grass slope, which is not conducive to rapid fattening, and calves, small frame cattle through grazing, can promote bone development.
Tethered feeding is the most commonly used feeding method in intensive industrial production, which has the characteristics of fast production and high economic benefit.
The combination of grazing and feeding can be used in many areas. In summer and autumn when the grass is abundant, the method of grazing and feeding concentrate can be adopted, while in winter when the grass is dry, feeding can be completed
Cattle farm facilities and equipment
1. Cowshed facilities and cow equipment: cow free stall
In general, the main facilities include: cow bed and tethering equipment, feeding equipment, drinking water equipment, feces cleaning equipment and other related facilities such as the playground outside the house.
(1) cow bed & cow mat
The cow bed must ensure that the cow rest comfortably and quietly, keep the cow body clean, facilitate milking operations (when milking in the shed) and easy to clean. Cattle beds should have a suitable slope, usually 1~1.5%. At present the cow bed USES the cement surface layer, and in the back of the line non - slip. In winter, in order to reduce the impact of cold on cow production, it is necessary to add bedding in cow bed. It is best to use rubber and other materials as cow bed surface layer.
1. Tethered feeding bed for cattle
2. Cattle bed for loose column feeding
(2) fastening of equipment
The tethering device is used to limit the range of the cattle in the bed. Tether equipment in the form of soft chain, hard joint neck
(3) feeding equipment
Feeding facilities for cows include equipment for transporting, conveying, distributing and feeding channels.
There are two common feeding methods: a single type of whole-day diet compound feed, that is, silage and compound feed mixed into a mixed feed; In the case of bulk feeders, most of the concentrate is fed during milking, silage is fed in the playground or in the house trough, and green and hay are generally fed on the playground.
(4) drinking water equipment: water trough
The facilities for drinking water in the barn include a delivery line and an automatic drinking water fountain or sink.
(5) feces cleaning equipment in houses
1. Clean manure passage and ditch
2. Feces cleaning form and equipment
The form of cow house clear dung has machine clear dung, water flusher clear dung, artificial clear dung. China's dairy farms use artificial manure. The main equipment used in mechanical manure cleaning is a connecting rod scraper, which is suitable for single-row cow bed. Circular chain scraper, suitable for double row ox bed; Double - wing - type manure - pushing plate type, suitable for loose - feeding cattle shed.
Two, milking center and cow milking equipment
(I) the arrangement of the milking center
The milking room is generally located in the following two arrangements:
1. The milking hall is located in the middle of the milking house
2. The milking hall is located on one side of the milking house
(2) milking equipment
1. Requirements for milking equipment
In order to ensure that milking equipment does not cause harmful stimulation to cows, increase milk production, reduce disease and reduce milk contamination, the following requirements are required for milking equipment.
(1) physiological requirements
(2) technical requirements
2. Type of milking equipment
According to the form of mechanical milking device is divided into the following types: bucket type, pipeline type, milking hall type, mobile and milking robot. The selection of the type of milking equipment, mainly by the size of the dairy farm and feeding technology.
(1) pail milking device: mainly used in small and medium-sized cattle farms, the system consists of milking device and vacuum device.
(2) pipeline milking device: suitable for medium size cattle farm in the tethered cowshed. Consists of the following six parts. Vacuum system, vacuum piping, milk piping, milking cup set, milk collection system and cleaning and disinfection system.
(3) mobile milking device: suitable for milking cows in pasture with large range of activities.
(4) milking hall type milking device: milking hall type milking system is suitable for specialized dairy farms, which are mostly adopted in loose feeding and loose stall feeding dairy farms. Milking hall milking device is mainly composed of stationary milking device, milk gauge, milk conveying pipeline, feeding equipment, automatic breast cleaning and milk cup automatic unloading system.
(3) the arrangement of milking hall
The milking hall is the most important part of the milking center, which is equipped with milking stands in different forms and in different milking stalls according to different requirements. Each milking stall is equipped with milking machine, milk gauge, milk conveying equipment and washing equipment. The common milking table has the following forms.
1. March-past, 2. In series, 3. Sideways, 4. Fishbone, 5. disc
(4) hoof bath
The hoof bath is directly set up on the return channel of the cow, and the dairy farm can conduct 1~2 hoof baths per week according to the actual needs. Pay attention to the following points when designing:
(1) as there is a hoof bath on the return channel, the speed of the cows returning to the cowshed is slowed down, so the hoof bath should be as far away from the milking table as possible to reduce the impact on it.
(2) the hoof bath is the same width as the return channel and is 15cm deep. It is required to hold at least 10cm deep liquid. The minimum length is 220cm, and the corresponding slope is set at both ends.
(3) in order to prevent a large number of cattle hoofs from falling into the hoof bath and contaminating the disinfectant, cattle can be let through the clear water before the hoof bath.
Silage facilities and equipment
There are four types of silage: silo, silage tower and plastic bag silage and ground storage. Different silage methods and corresponding supporting facilities can be selected according to different conditions and dosage.
1. Pit site selection
Silos should be built near the cowshed, the terrain should be high and dry, easy to drain, away from water sources and cesspool, do not build in low-lying areas or under the shade of trees to prevent water leakage, air leakage and collapse.
2. Cellar shape and specifications
The roof width of the small silo is 2.0~4.0m, the depth is 2.0~3.0m, and the length is 3.0~15.0m. The width of the large cellar is 10.0~15.0m, the depth is 3.0~3.5m, and the length is 30.0~50.0m.
3. Building pit
Earth cellar wall to smooth, if use time is long, had better make permanent cellar. The rectangular cellar corners are curved to allow silage to sink and remove residual air.
4. Silo volume calculation and silage weight
The width and depth of the silo are determined by the amount of silage fed daily, and it is usually advisable to dig in no less than 15cm for daily feeding. After the width and depth are determined, the length of the silage can be calculated according to the silage demand, and the silage weight can also be calculated according to the silage volume and silage bulk density.
The silage can be loaded by a green feed cutter while it is being chopped, or by a trailer behind the green feed harvester for dump loading.
(2) ground storage
Surface storage is a relatively simple method. Choose dry, flat areas, preferably cement floors. All round cover with plastic film is strict, also can be in all round build on low wall, after spreading feed film to add green makings again. Generally, the stack is 1.5~2.0m high, 1.5~2.0m wide, and 3~5m long. The top is pressed down with dirt or heavy weights. This form has less storage and short storage period, which is suitable for small scale breeding.
(3) plastic bag storage
Plastic bag silage has the following advantages: less investment, quick effect, high comprehensive benefit; Silage of good quality, high content of crude protein, low content of crude fiber, high digestibility, good palatability, high intake, aromatic smell; The loss and waste are very few, the mildew loss, fluid loss and feeding loss are greatly reduced. Long shelf life, up to 1~2 years; Free from the influence of season, sun, rainfall and water table, they can be stacked in the open air; It can be harvested and dried intensively to complete silage production in a short time. Convenient storage and feeding; Save the cost of building the cellar and maintenance; Saved the land and labor occupied by building the cellar; Save the upper cellar labor; Not polluting the environment; Easy to transport and commercialize. The necessary condition is to cut the silage raw material short, cut fine, spray or put into plastic bags, exhaust the air and press after tying. If there is no pump, it should be packed tightly and the weight pressed tight.
Beef cattle farm facilities and equipment
(1) cow bed
Can use cement plaster, good thermal conductivity, rugged and durable, easy to clean and disinfect.
(2) feeding trough
There are two types of feeder, fixed and movable, in front of the cow bed.
A sink is as necessary as a trough in a house. It can be an automatic water fountain or a sink with a faucet. Cold area gutters require cold resistance, winter can use warm water if necessary.
(4) passage to clear manure
At the same time, the passage is also the channel for cattle to enter and exit, and the passage generally needs to set a certain slope, and set the anti-slip groove.
(5) fecal urinal furrow
Artificial manure cow house in the cow bed and channel between the installation of excrement urinal ditch, excrement urinal requirements do not leak and wall surface smooth. The trench is 30~40 cm wide, 10~15 cm deep, and the longitudinal drainage slope is 1~2%.
(6) feed channel
The feed channel is arranged at the front end of the trough, generally 10 cm above the ground and 1.5~2 cm wide.
(7) sports ground
Breeding cattle, calves of the cattle house, should be set up a sports ground. The playground is usually set up in a spare area between buildings, surrounded by a fence to let the cattle loose or tie them up. The playground is suitable for sanhe ground. Supplementary feeding trough and water trough shall be set up in the sports ground. Fattening cattle generally need to reduce exercise, after feeding, tie to the playground to rest, and reduce feed consumption, improve weight gain. For breeding cows, get plenty of exercise and sunbathe every day. Exercise should be compulsory for bulls to ensure their health.
(8) other livestock equipment
1. Management equipment: it mainly includes brushing cattle body instruments, tethering instruments, cleaning barn instruments and weight testing instruments. In addition, it also needs to be equipped with ear labels, bloodless emasculators and body measurement instruments.
2. Feed production and conveying equipment
The equipment of beef cattle farm also includes veterinary epidemic prevention equipment, transportation equipment inside and outside the farm and public engineering equipment.