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Working principle and operation of milking machine

Working principle and operation of milking machine


Cow milking machine

Milking machine is composed of vacuum pump and milking apparatus.

The former mainly includes vacuum pump, motor, vacuum tank, vacuum regulator, vacuum pressure gauge and so on.The latter consists of a milking pail, a pulsator (or pulsator), a milk collector, a milking cup, and some tubes and rubber tubes.

Each milking machine consists of 8 ~ 10 pairs of milkers, enough for 100 ~ 120 cows.

The new type of pipe cow milking machine does not have milking pail. Milk flows directly from milking cup to the milk storage tank and is completely isolated from the outside world.

The vacuum pressure of milking cup can be adjusted automatically according to milk flow, and can fall off automatically after milking, so as not to empty car.

milk storage tank of cow milking machine is made of stainless steel. The tank is intercalated with a serpentine tube filled with freon 20 and other refrigerants. There are two electric agitators in the tank, which can rapidly reduce milk temperature to 2 ~ 3℃.


Milking machine has two beat and three beat regarding types.

In our country in the early 1950s, the three - beat pattern was adopted everywhere, and now the two - beat pattern is adopted.

1.Two beat type is called two beat, when the milking machine is activated, in a beat to produce two beats.

* The beat is sucking, and there is a vacuum in the nipple chamber and the wall chamber of milking machine, and the rubber sleeve is in normal condition.

Due to the difference in pressure between the nipple tube and nipple chamber within the nipple, the sphincter of nipple is opened and milk is sucked into the nipple chamber and from there into the milk bucket (or storage tank) during cow milking machine process.

The second beat is the squeeze, when the nipple chamber is still vacuumed but air enters the wall chamber, and the rubber sleeve is compressed by the pressure difference between the chambers, the sphincter closes and milk stops flowing.

The purpose of the squeeze beat of cow milking machine is to massage nipple by squeezing to restore blood flow to nipple that has been blocked during the suck beat.

The pulsation frequency of two-beat milking machine is generally 48 ~ 60 times/min.

The ratio of suck beats to squeeze beats is 1:1, or can be set to 2:8, 3:7, or 4:6 in a pulse time.

When milking with two beat milking machine, the nipple is always a vacuum, so that the nipple (milk cup) will gradually touch the nipple and breast, after milking for 3 to 4 minutes, although the milk has not been milked, but because the communication between the nipple and breast is blocked, thus stopped the milk, easy to produce milk is not easy to milk the shortcoming. But because there is no rest beat, milking is faster than trimetrically.

Two-beat milking machine When there is a vacuum in the casing and between the casing, the milk is drawn from the nipple tube. When there is a vacuum in the casing but not between the casing and the cup, the nipple stops draining and is at rest.

In normal operation, the casing is maintained with a vacuum, sometimes filled with air, between the casing and the casing due to the control of the pulsator.

2. In addition to sucking and squeezing, milking machine adds a third beat, the rest beat.

This makes it easy to eliminate the disadvantages of two - beat milking machines.

But milking is slower in such milking machine. The time of three beats in a pulse is roughly: this milking machine can suck 45%, squeeze 15%, and rest 40%.


As with manual milking, the breasts should be scrubbed and massaged with hot water (50-55C) prior to milking.

Turn on the switch of cow milking machine, turn on the power and make the motor turn.

Adjust the vacuum pressure gauge of cow milking machine to make the vacuum close to 30 -- 35cm, generally not more than 40cm.

Then connect thick rubber tube to switch of catheter and turn on switch of cow milking machine.

With one hand grasping the dairytube, and opening switch on the lid of pail, place the cups of cow milking machine one by one on the nipples from the far side.

The pulse frequency of pulsator is generally adjusted to 50-60 times/min.

During milking, milk flow on cow milking machine can be observed through the glass tube on milker. If there is no milk flow, turn off switch on the milking pail or switch on catheter, gently remove the milking cup and hang it on the lid of milking pail.

Newer milking cups of cow milking machine come off automatically according to milk flow.

After each milking, milk bucket of cow milking machine and related parts in contact with milk should be disassembled and cleaned, washed with cold water first, and then washed with 85℃ hot water.

The method of cow milking machine is to connect the main pipe (thick rubber tube), turn on switch on the catheter, reverse milk collector and immerse milk cup in the water, then open switch on the cover of the milk bucket to suck water into milk bucket, and wash milk cup and milk tube before washing the cover and wall of tcow milking machine bucket.

Wash with hot water and hang milker on a rack to dry.


Correct mechanized operation of cow milking machine should be carried out according to the following procedures based on milking machine factory .

1. At the beginning of milking, extrude three milk from each milk area on a black inspection board or a black inspection board with a strainer fixed to the mouth of the mug to check whether there are milk blocks and observe the change of milk color to judge the health of the milk area.

The first few handfuls of milk are mainly milk in the milk pool and often contain a lot of bacteria.

During milking, bacteria enter the milk pool from the nipple hole and thrive there on milk.

This three-ply milk should not be squeezed into large quantities of high-quality milk, nor should it be left on the floor or on the cow bed to prevent bacteria from invading through the nipple hole and infecting the healthy milk area.

In addition, the first three milk often contain residual nipple immersion fluid.

2.Wash and massage the breasts

(1) Wash the breast after milking the breast for three.

Do not wash the breasts and then milk three.

Because this may cause the milk containing less bacteria to mix with the milk containing more bacteria in the nipple pool, and rise to the upper breast, posing a threat to breast health, but also increase the number of bacteria in commercial milk.

To very dirty breast should use a lot of clean water to wipe dry, then wipe breast with warm water.

Use a breast sprinkler to flush in the milking parlour.

Wash and dry breast towels with warm disinfectant.

(2) Massage the breast after milking and cleaning the breast, the nipple and breast have not been full, taut, indicating that has not completely formed the breast discharge reflex, it must continue to massage the breast, until the breast discharge reflex is completely formed.

There are many pressure and touch receptors on the skin of the breast and nipple, which transmit the excitement formed by massage to the brain through the nerve, and secrete oxytocin by the pituitary gland, which ACTS on the muscle cells around the mammary gland bubble in the breast along with the blood circulation, making it contract and squeeze the mammary gland bubble, and then the milk contained in it is discharged into the breast pool through the mammary duct.

3. Milk cup when the discharge reflex formed, as soon as possible to put on the milk cup milking, otherwise, from the mammary bubble to the milk pool will slow or interrupt.

The duration of oxytocin's action is usually maintained for 7 to 8 minutes. If the cup is not held in time, the duration of oxytocin's action during milking is shortened and there is more milk left in the breast.

Therefore, it is generally required to start from milking three milks until about lmin when the blood concentration of oxytocin rises to its peak.

  • The order of cups is to start from the left side of the breast area in a clockwise direction, so that it is convenient and safe.

  • Avoid intake when setting cups;

  • Before setting cup, do not besmear to milk cream or milk on tit, lest milk cup advance or climb easily, sealed from mammary gland pool to the channel of tit, make residual milk increase;

  • After the cup to check the milk claw suspension is normal, milk is smooth, otherwise there will be a nipple in the cup sprain or milk may not clean.

  • 4. The vacuum is still fully applied to the nipple after or when there is no milk flow. This is called empty squeezing.

  • A large residual vacuum is easily formed in the breast during air extrusion, which will help bacteria enter the breast and retain and reproduce there.

  • On the other hand, the rubber inner sleeve of the milk cup continues to move, which will reduce its service life.

  • The way to eliminate the squeeze is to examine it through an observation tube or an observation mirror.

  • In recent years, the transparent plastic cover milk cup can be seen clearly from the outside of the cup milk flow.

  • 5.When there is no milk coming out from the observation tube (mirror), touch the breast with your hand to check if there is any milk left.

  • Under normal circumstances, can always extrude milk.

  • Because the breast always has different degrees of forward tilt, so that the nipple is also different degrees of pointing to the front and lower, when the breast under the force of gravity, the nipple is vertical downward, when the amount of milk in the breast to a certain amount of milk, breast milk flow to the nipple blocked.

  • At this point, it is necessary to press one hand on the center of the milking claw, slightly downward and forward pressure, and can be arbitrarily to the four milk area;

  • The other hand massages the breast again, and drives the milk from different directions.

  • If there is more residual milk, check the rubber sleeve and vacuum of the cup.

  • Rubber inner sleeve aging, loss of elasticity, damage, or high vacuum (more than 50kPa) can increase the residual milk.

  • Residual milk is also associated with breast health, milker experience and responsibility.

  • 6.After milking the milk, discharge the cup immediately to prevent empty milking, do not pull hard.

  • Specific operations are as follows:

  • (1) Close the vacuum to the milk claw;

  • (2) Wait for a while until the negative pressure in the nipple chamber of the milk cup decreases;

  • (3) Remove the four milk cups from the person's wrist or palm at the same time;

  • (4) Put the heads of the four milk cups downward, quickly open and close the vacuum switch several times, and suck the milk remaining in the milk cup and the milk tube into the milk barrel.

  • 7.Disinfect the nipple After removing the milk cup, soak the nipple immediately with liquid medicine, which can kill or inhibit the bacteria at the top of the nipple and in the nipple hole.

  • In the short time after removing the milk cup, the breast still has more or less residual vacuum, which can absorb a small amount of disinfectant and remain in the nipple hole to prevent the invasion of external bacteria.

  • More details about cow milking machine operation, contact Desing

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